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XV. Őszrózsa Természetvédelmi Vetélkedő - 2018
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» Protected Areas » Körös-Maros National Park » Introducion of the units » Flood plains of river Körös
Flood plains of river Körös

Photo: Boldog GusztávThe river regulation of branches of Körös was started in 1856 with riverbed regulations, cut-offs and construction of bank-lines. As a result of the irrigation demand in the drought years and the need for the navigable channel, the Bökény barrage was constructed at the beginning of the 20th century, and then between 1936-1942 the Békésszentandrás barrage was built. After the river regulation the biggest part of the wetlands dried out and the habitats of wild life decreased. Despite this situation the flood plains have an important role in the maintenance of characteristic species of the wetlands even nowadays. The Csárdaszállás – Szelevény section of river Hármas-Körös has been protected first by the counties next to the river, but since 1997 this section has been the part of the National Park. Softwood gallery forests, groves of willows and poplars, flood plain meadows and hayfields edge the river. The two characteristic types of gallery forests are the more frequent poplar-willow groves and the by now rare mixed hardwood gallery forests of oak, elm and ash. The very rare fox-grape creeps on the willows and poplars, while in the elm-oak-ash galleries there are small patches of very rare herbs like Epipactis helleborine and the summer snowflake. Both types of gallery forests are rich in shrubs, among them with lots of rare species like the common hazel, common hawthorn, spindle, marsh-elder, hackberry, Acer tartaricum, blood-twig dogwood, dewberry and the stinking elder. The vegetation that lost its growing space in the surrounding fields, has found home on these flood plains, and the former riverbeds and meadows remind the erstwhile marshlands of the Great Plain. Because of the wet conditions the marshland and water vegetation is very rich. Among the species of plant communities there are a lot of protected plants e.g. the white water lily, the floating watermoss, the water chestnut and the Nimphoides peltata. The hayfields between the oxbows and on the landside of the dykes are also important habitats for the various communities of sodic soil grasslands covered mainly by veresnadrág fescue and mészpázsit. The meadow clematis is a protected plant of wet hayfields.One can often see quawk, little egret and heron on the Körös and the barrow pits. In the end of summer and the beginning of autumn the migrating flocks of black stork can be seen regularly. In winter if the river is not frozen, thousands of wild ducks find a resting place on it. From among the mammals lots of otters find shelter here. In the undisturbed, older gallery forests heron colonies and rare species of raptores nest, and there are a lot of species of bats. The undisturbed ancient gallery forests are full of voices of singing birds at the hatching time. Some thinning fish species, among them the loach and the nowadays endangered crucian, spawn in the fens, which are full of water vegetation. Fairly big populations of spiny loach, white-finned gudgeon and Balon ruffe also live in these habitats.

2018. 02. 14. Print page
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Természetvédelmi Hivatala